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The Republican Study Committee (RSC) has served as the conservative caucus of House Republicans and a leading influencer on the Right since its original founding in 1973.

In 1973, Rep. Phil Crane (R-IL) and others founded the RSC and gave conservatives a place to call home in the House of Representatives. The RSC functioned as a Legislative Service Organization until such groups were abolished under House rules in the first days of the 104th Congress (1995). Rep. Dan Burton (R-IN) was the last Chairman of the RSC before it was abolished. Shortly thereafter, the group was re-started as the Conservative Action Team (CATs) under new founders Rep. John Doolittle (R-CA), Ernest Istook (R-OK), Sam Johnson (R-TX), and Dan Burton (R-IN).

Rep. John Shadegg (R-AZ) became the CAT chairman in 2000 and returned the group to its historic name, the RSC, in 2001. Rep. Shadegg was succeeded by Rep. Sue Myrick (R-NC) in the 108th Congress (2003-2004), Rep. Mike Pence (R-IN) in the 109th Congress (2005-2006), Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) in the 110th Congress (2007-2008), Rep. Tom Price (R-GA) in the 111th Congress (2009-2010), Rep. Jim Jordan (R-OH) in the 112th Congress (2011-2012), Rep. Steve Scalise (R-LA) (2013-2014) and Rep. Rob Woodall (R-GA) (2014) in the 113th Congress, Rep. Bill Flores (R-TX) in the 114th Congress (2015-2016), Rep. Mark Walker (R-NC) in the 115th (2017-2018), Rep. Mike Johnson (R-LA), Rep. Jim Banks (IN-03). The current chairman is Rep. Kevin Hern (OK-01).